Synopsis: The majority of spring cereals crop have been planted. Acres of spring cereals is higher with good planting conditions, potential returns, lower input costs. Acres of seeded forage and nurse crops is 10-15% higher (Bill Brown). Emergence has been excellent. Advanced wheat wheat now pushing GS32-33, but in most fields, 1st node not visible. Corn planting ranges from 5-30% across the region. Canola planting is 60-70 complete but ranges widely. Early April planted canola is between 20- 50% emerged. Most areas received about 0.25 inch rain last Friday. Dundalk-Orangeville area received up to 6 inches snow Monday night.
Wheat: Most wheat fields have received Nitrogen (N). Early applications were usually applied as split treatments, whereas later applications received all required N. Very little wheat has received fungicide or weed control due to cold temperatures. Septoria is present in the wheat but at low levels.
Weed Control in Wheat: Concern about need for weed control in advanced stage fields with full canopy closure. In later planted wheat, optimum timing for weed control and fungicide application may not coincide. Fields with greatest weed pressure are the ones planted late without time for a burndown. Purple deadnettle, henbit, and speedwell are more prevalent this year (Craig Reid, Sprucedale). Discussion around winter annuals and large dandelions in wheat and when does the risk of damage to wheat and yield loss outweigh the benefit of trying to control them. Yield loss from dandelions and chickweed has already occurred so spraying will be to control seed production. If don’t control winter annuals in spring, a pre-harvest could be required which could delay harvest. Best control of dandelions is with Estaprop, but need to have warmer temperatures. Infinity is good on seedling dandelions,will suppress larger ones and has better crop safety than Estaprop. Cleavers is listed as an annual or winter annual in Ontario weeds (Weedinfo.ca) and appears to be overwintering in Ont.
Cleavers in wheat underseeded to red clover: No herbicides exist that are effective on cleavers yet registered for use on red clover. Trophy is the most effective herbicide to control cleavers (90% control RCAT trial). Recent research at the University of Guelph has demonstrated that red clover is sensitive to applications of Trophy and 16% of the time red clover biomass harvested in the fall was significantly lower than the un-sprayed control plots. At other locations red clover biomass was numerically lower, but not significantly different than the un-sprayed control plots.
Purple Deadnettle: No work has been done on this species provincially, but limited work has been done on henbit, a similar species. Based on the limited Ontario species and literature reviews from the U.S., Refine M is your best bet, with the qualifier that unless you are targeting very small deadnettle control of this species is likely to be less than 60%.
Field Violet: Refine M is the most effective product, but same qualifier as purple deadnettle. The larger the weed gets, the poorer the control.
Scentless chamomile: Refine M is best bet (70% control). Addition of MCPA ester formulation to improve control. Check label for rates.
For more information on Problem weeds:
- Weed Research reports by Dr Peter Sikkema: Excellent reports & presentation summaries. Example: Weed Management in Winter Wheat. http://bit.ly/ugrcsikkema1
- OMAFRA Problem Weeds: http://bit.ly/omafraweeds1
Corn: Planting ranges from 0-30%, higher in Stayer area and on lighter texture soils. Lots of fields have been worked, and ready to be planted. Unfortunately this week is typically the ideal time to plant corn.
Chilling Injury in Corn: Corn planted Sunday 22nd, is at greatest risk of chilling injury. When dry seed imbibes cold water from a cold rain or snow during the first 24-48 hours after seeding, imbibition chilling injury can occur during the germination process. Extend of damage will depend on how long cold, and wet conditions last. To avoid risk of chilling injury corn should be planted when soil temperatures are consistently above 100 C (500 F) and with favourable temperature forecast. Some seed companies (e.g. Pioneer Hybrid) conduct a cold germ test which differs between hybrids (Jim Coffey, Pioneer). If a replant is required check with the seed company on replant policy. Example: Pioneer replant policy based on technology, it is not 100% but depends on how much needs replanted, no set planting date start, and level of technology. For soybeans replant policy is 100% if treated and 50% if not (Jim Coffey, Pioneer). You can follow a field of March 24th planted corn near Winterbourne(Guelph area) on twitter at @coffey4pioneer.
Agricorp does not have an early planting date. In corn, planting before April 15th is not recommended and after this date growers are expected to follow best management practices and consider weather forecast. Planting corn on Sunday 21st with forecast of cold rains/snow would be carefully looked at in decision on claim. If there is a claim, each one is investigated on its own merits, planting conditions, weather forecast at time in decision. Growers need to call in a damage report if they have a reduced stand or other damage to have field inspected. Planting soybeans this past weekend ahead of cold front, not likely to be covered for reseed benefit.
Damage reports for winter wheat have slowed down significantly with a lot of requests inspection of November planted wheat to be eligible for RMP insurance.
Growers need to be checking renewal forms carefully and making changes by MAY 1ST. For RMP need to select level of coverage by MAY 1, default is 100%. Growers need to also understand rules if they decide to opt out of RMP. Most grain growers are remaining in RMP, whereas some livestock producers are cancelling.
- ESN is sold out. Cargill is using XCU as alternative for growers who want ESN. It is 43-0-0 with sulfur (4%) and polymer coating. Assuming the “X” stand for “Double” or “Xtra” Coated Urea. SRP is over $900/mt. Originally used in the Hort market (Tim Meulensteen, Cargill).
Following the meeting Felix Weber shared new aerial photography technology for aerial photographs/mapping. Felix has a swinglet cam plane with 30 minutes of fly time controlled by ground or pre packed in the plane memory that can take NIR and aerial photos that you can use in many ways. Pictures taken on the camera in the plane can be downloaded to computer in the field and then stitched together with geo-referencing etc, different forms of software. You can program the planes flightpath on home computer and adjust it in the field as needed and can adjust altitude etc. You need to have a permit for non controlled air space but they are working on even controlled space in some areas (ie easier and quicker permit process). Costing – Felix is the north american distributor for purchasing or for custom mapping.
Next Meeting: Tuesday May 8th, 7:30 am.
Felix Weber’s – Agricoach, Palmerston
[Road 178, 1stroad west of Palmerston on highway 23, #5929]
Confirmation of attendance is not required.
Please direct any questions, comments or agenda items you may have to:
Brian Hall, OMAFRA 519-271-0083 firstname.lastname@example.org