Spring Planting Update:
- No tillage activity on the fine-textured clay soils
- Some tillage, manure application and fertilizer application to sandy and loamy fields
- Very little planting to date – a few acres of corn planted around Embro, Thamesford, Drumbo, Tillsonburg and sandy soils in Brant. Mainly just getting a few acres in and ensuring the equipment is set up properly. Cooler weather predictions for the next few weeks, compared to the ideal weather over the past few days have reduced the rush.
- What a difference a year makes! Wheat crops continue to impress growers with uniform stands and most with at least 3 tillers per plant on average. Growth stage in this part of the province is between Zodak 25 to 30, although there are a few post edible bean (mid Sept) planted fields that are at 1st node (Z31).
- Much of the nitrogen has been or is being applied. About 50% of growers are applying their nitrogen in 1 application. Especially on clay soils, it is not always practical to split N – based on soil conditions, time and weather crunch, fungicide/herbicide management, etc. Nitrogen losses from mid-March applications will depend on soil texture, site conditions etc., however cool temperatures that slow transformations will limit losses from denitrification/volatilization to an estimated 5 to 15%. Denitrification on heavy textured soils or in extended saturated wet areas could increase losses slightly.
- Will splitting N application pay? Depends on planting date, variety, soil type and weather after applications. 1st half of N that is being applied in split application is often being combined with sulphur, phosphorus and potash
- Highly tillered fields with all N applied before Growth Stage (GS) 30 will have increased lodging potential – especially with varieties that have poorer standability (Ava, R34 etc). In these situations early fungicide application (Growth stage 32) will help stem integrity and will provide protection against wheat diseases that move up from the base of the plant (not including rust). (One wheat field planted on Sept 18 with hog manure – Peter J counted 19 tillers per plant)
- Ethrel – Wheat Shortener – if used properly it is a great product – but if used wrong it can cause high crop yield losses (Timing and temperature important – no application when temperature is over 28oC).
- Scouting for rust will be very important this season since the rust overwintered in Kentucky (further north than normal) and spores are expected to reach Ontario with the south winds. Fungicide applications are good in preventing rust damage, but not as good in protecting the plant from damage once the plant is infected.
- Fungicide applied at various growth stages will depend on crop management such as nitrogen application and weed control, disease pressure and weather forecast. The table below gives an indication of yield response to fungicide application timing. Peter Johnson suggested that full rate fungicide application at GS 32 would give up to 21 days protection, especially since most diseases move from the ground up the plant. Fungicide application to prevent fusarium would be applied about 25 days after the GS32 application.
|Fungicide Timing Response||Yield||Advantage|
|T1 + T2||0.54||8.0|
|T1 + T3||0.60||8.9|
|T2 + T3||0.73||10.8|
|T1 + T2 + T3||0.87||12.9|
|Brinkman UofG 2009-11 SMART data|
Fungicide timing naming convention:
- Early timings (GS 30-31, weed control timing) are referred to as T1
- flag leaf timings (GS 37-39) are referred to as T2, and
- fusarium timing (GS 58-61) are referred to as T3
- Some septoria is present in wheat
- Fungicide application and temperature fluctuations: Does a grower need to worry? Fungicide by itself compared to tank mixes with some herbicides is much safer. The colder the temperature and the more number of products?) in the tank the higher the risk,. Estaprop hasn hih=gher burn potential where Refine and Buctril-M are safer when mixed with other poroducts.
- Red clover seeded into wheat estimates – range from 25% to over 50% depending on location and soil texture. On the heavy clay soils, more red clover has been applied (and is germinating – especially in the row) because opportunity for an alternate cover crop after wheat harvest often isn’t success. On lighter soils, more options for oats or other cover crop after wheat harvest. Also more options for weed control where red clover has not been seeded. Many of these fields may not get weed control.
- Many surprised that there aren’t more weeds in wheat this spring. Fall weed control is evident.
- Chickweed is thick (a carpet) in some fields. Stinkweed in a few fields already in bud stage. In some winter wheat fields, weed control should be done ahead of nitrogen application.
- Timing of herbicide in wheat will be interesting – early planted wheat will have early canopy – may affect weed growth and herbicide coverage on weeds.
- Research done that suggests 60% of the time there is no yield benefit to herbicide weed control in wheat, usually because winter annual weed pressure is very low and annual weeds (ragweed, lambsquarters) don’t have enough growth before canopy cover. Herbicide application when winter annuals are too far advanced will not give good weed control, but can have a significant negative yield impact.
- Eragon burndown last fall ~80% control of chickweed
- Essex has some fields of fleabane with a bit of wheat – Glyphosate resistant fleabane is growing well and where it is thick (ahead of soybeans) is being controlled in some cases with a 4 way mix of eragon, glyphosate (surfactant qualities? Helps give better weed control), metribuzin & 2,4-D
- Eragon applied ahead of wheat planting gave very good control of fleabane, however there is still fleabane in the field. Late germinating fleabane (December) has a much smaller root system than fleabane that germinated in October. In wheat it may not go to seed before wheat harvest.
- Where there is heavy fleabane pressure there can be a 90% yield loss in soybeans
- The Elgin to Niagara (Brant –Oxford) area does not have a huge population of glyphosate resistant fleabane – it’s out there but not a carpet. Heavier populations can be found along the lake
- More and more we have to push people to do the combined modes of action before glyphosate resistance becomes a problem.
- This area some growers are using just glyphosate 7 years of 9 – high risk of resistance to Group 2; triazine resistance and glyphosate resistance
- Where fleabane(resistant to glyphosate) pressure is low many producers use Optill (glyphospate + pursuit) but with increased fleabane resistance, -should consider adding erogon or metribuzin as a tank mix
- For fleabane control metribuzin at 216 gm active rate will give good control (uptake into leaf tissue)
- For fleabane control plus added soil residual (especially on heavy clay soils) – need to increase the rate of metribuzin to 400 gm (active rate) to compensate for tie up in clay
- Haldimand issue – need higher metribuzin active, but difficult to apply tank mix with high actives all at once. Good control of fleabane in Haldimand at 250 gm active rate (research sited by Brian)
- Xtend – same place as yesterday – agreement has been ratified by voice but not by paper but seed still untreated in the bin. – June
Cover crop Management:
- Rye grass (annual and perennial) – inter-seeded into corn crop last year – winter survival way better than normal (normally 80 % winter kill) this year almost 100% survival. Control requires 1.5 L RU equivalent now. Once the plant gets to 1st node it’s almost impossible to kill. Rigid ryegrass in Australia is resistant to almost every herbicide – but is a different species. No glyphosate resistance in perennial ryegrass that we know of in Ontario– there is some in western USA – don’t spray perennial ryegrass with low rate of glyphosate – The ryegrass should be terminated sooner than would normally occur in crop management (i.e., just ahead of planting soybeans). 2 years from now we hopefully will know more about the management of ryegrasses
- Once ARG starts going reproductive it is really tough to kill (it requires about 3 L RU original) – or fence off and clip for cattle feed – even thin stands tiller (30-35 tillers possible) as reported by one farmer who planted ARG with turkey manure – every plant high tillers
- How will annual ryegrass affect tillage? Seedbed preparation with 30 tiller ryegrass? Handling root balls? Cover crop advocates feel that good root channels will overcome planting issues.
Agricorp Report – from Doug Green
- May 1st deadline is fast approaching to apply for coverage or make changes to accounts.
- There is an important change in the unseeded acreage coverage. A grower is now able to choose their dominant crop. This must be completed by May 1st.
- Producers are reminded that they are no longer required to be in the Agri-Stability plan to be enrolled in RMP. Apply by May 1st
- Production Insurance plans available for:
- Adzuki Beans (previously they were covered under the Japnese and Other Beans plan).
- Oats (previously covered under Spring grain plan)
- Barley (previously covered under the Spring grain plan. The Spring grain plan is still available)
- Please visit Agricorp website for information including premiums (Agricorp.com). The Agricorp Call Centre is open 7 am – 5 pm Monday through Friday. Call them at 1-888-247-4999.
Next Simcoe meeting is Wednesday May 4, 2016 7:30 am at Shire (Travelodge) Simcoe
Exeter Breakfast Meeting Tuesday April 27, 7 am Malibu Restaurant (near Centralia), Ridgetown Ag Breafast Meeting, Tuesday May 3, 7:15 am, Ridgetown Campus