Breakfast Sponsor: Thanks from the group to “Richard Anderson – BASF Canada“
Quote of the week – If you need anything other than glyphosate up front – you haven’t been doing a good job.” Roger Bourassa
And a couple more: “Resistant Weeds Cost More Money” and “Not hard finding a tillage resistant weed”
Synopsis: There is snow on the ground again this morning. Generally the winter wheat crop looks good. Cold temperatures persist so growth has been limited. Some nitrogen has been applied and most of the red clover is on the wheat. Corn acreage is expected to be similar to last year and soybeans will be up. Weed resistance continues to be a concern. Everyone needs to continue to scout for resistant weeds and manage accordingly. The acreage of Xtend soybeans will be up this year so careful application of dicamba will be critical.
Winter Wheat: Winter wheat acreage was 940,000 in 2017 and is estimated at 930,000 acres this year. At this point most of the winter wheat crop looks pretty good. The cold temperatures over the last few weeks have resulted in slow growth. Dale Cowan reported that Sept 29 planted wheat in Essex is at approximately 765 GDD and Oct 18 planted wheat is sitting at 457 GDD. The last week of February saw 63 GDD accumulated which is why the wheat began greened up. (It takes roughly 100 GDD to form a new leaf) Since that time we have barely accumulated 35 GDD. No wonder the wheat is not greening up!
Some frost heaving has been observed mainly in fields that were planted too shallow. Most of the wheat was planted early and developed a good root system and has 3 tillers. Frost heaving occurred . Water has been sitting in some fields so the wheat may not make it in those low lying areas. There is concern in the Niagara area that the wheat may not have come through the winter very well. In the last two weeks some nitrogen was applied to the winter wheat. Check wheat stands before applying N. The last of the red clover is going on now. Some fields were marked up putting the clover on. The per cent of winter wheat acres receiving red clover varies by region. In some areas it could be as high as 50% but many areas are likely 30 to 40 %. There did seem to be some more interest in red clover this year.
The cold spring temperatures will have slowed the mineralization of sulphur in the soil. It is being recommended to increase sulphur an extra 5 lbs on winter wheat to a total of 15 lbs/ac this spring. There was a question as to whether there was a difference in the effectiveness of the different sources of sulphur.
If anyone is interested in doing on farm-strip trials with sulphur in corn, soybeans or wheat to let Joanna Follings know Joanna.Follings@ontario.ca. A protocol will be shared so that there will be some consistency across sites.
Corn and Soybean Planting Intensions: The corn acreage for this year will likely be similar to last year or up slightly depending on weather. Soybean acres will be up. Amalgamations continue in the industry with Corteva (DowDupont) although the Pioneer brand will continue, Dow seeds will become the Brevant brand now. The Pioneer Chatham plant will be producing seed for both brands. Seed corn acreage will be down 15 to 20% this year as there was a big seed crop last year. Soybean seed acres are up by 10 to 15% this year and Pioneer is looking for more growers.
Weed Control: Chickweed is growing and should be sprayed soon. Canada fleabane is growing. Get out and scout those fields. The acreage of Xtend soybeans will be up this year. A high per cent of the acres west of London will be Xtend soybeans. There are several reasons for the increase in acreage of Xtend soybeans. Growers want the weed control and a lot of the new germ plasm includes the Xtend trait. There were very few problems with dicamba last year and it is hoped the same will hold true this year. The companies did lots of training of farmers on the proper application of dicamba. Their messages were to apply early and use it when appropriate. They also stressed using the right nozzles for application. If there is a delayed spring growers need to use the right rate. A higher rate may be needed along with a second mode of action for control. Infinity herbicide showed no negative impact on trials where a tillage radish cover crop was planted after winter wheat.
There is a lot of denial regarding resistance; more glyphosate is not the answer. There are farmers out there who are managing for resistance. The industry is putting a push on resistance management. There will be more to come next year.
Peter Sikkema’s research showed variable response of fleabane to dicamba in 2017 resulting in variable control. There was also a rate response to dicamba, 80% control at the 300g rate. At the half litre rate there was 95% control but it still didn’t kill some plants. He will continue to evaluate this. After fleabane had bolted they had trouble with control. Saflufenacil gives 20% better control of fleabane than 2, 4-D. Peter is starting a study looking at the best herbicides for glyphosate resistant fleabane control in corn, soybeans and wheat and asking companies to offer products that are comparable to the current best option.
Glyphosate resistant fleabane control, if the grower is not using Xtend soybeans then use glyphosate + Eragon + metribuzin + Merge on soybeans. Liberty soybeans , Reflex, 2,4-D in enlist soybeans are good options. In wheat, Infinity is the most effective at controlling Canada Fleabane. Pixxaro and 2,4-D ester can also provide good control. There are no restrictions on using the 2 group 14 herbicides. In corn, pre-emergence Integrity, Callisto, Aatrex 480, Battalion and Engenia/Xtendimax and post emergence Marksman, Engenia/Xtendimax, Pardner + Aatrex 480 and Distinct.
Acuron and Lumax applied pre-emergence has provided the most consistent control of glyphosate resistant waterhemp in corn. In soybeans Fierce is good but crop safety is a concern. The group 14 herbicides are more likely to cause crop injury when rainfall events occur after application. Authority Supreme is safer but less effective. Boundary is another option. 2 pass weed control is necessary as it keeps germinating throughout the season. Infinity is the best option in cereals.
Growers try to do 2 passes when should do 3 passes, resistant weeds take more effort and passes.
Sencor at the 3/8 rate on sand is not likely to cause injury. When glyphosate is sprayed at higher water volumes it reduces the efficacy. With more water there are more cations to tie up the glyphosate and a secondary factor is the dilution of adjuvents. To compensate for this increase the rate of herbicide. Do not use AMS with dicamba. There is no benefit of AMS with glyphosate either. Growers need to spray when the control is needed not when they want to i.e. spraying once instead of twice.
Grad Students Attending:
Lauren Benoit is a graduate student working with Peter Sikkema, looking at control of glyphoste-resistant waterhemp in corn. Her research has found waterhemp that is resistant to groups 2, 5, and 9. Waterhemp looks a lot like redroot pigweed. The main difference is pigweed has hairs. A preemergence application of Acuron (bicyclopyrone, mesotrione both group 27, s-metolachlor plus atrazine) is effective. Glyphosate-resistant waterhemp has been found as far east as Newbury. This population was found by random chance while driving around. A population has been found in Quebec that is resistant to 3 groups.
Brendan Metzger is a MSc student with Peter Sikkema, looking at the potential fit for tolpyralate in Ontario. Tolpyralate is a new group 27 herbicide that was recently registered for use in corn. As part of his thesis work, Brendan is looking at dose response to tolpyralate alone and with atrazine across several weed species, the effect of weed size on tolpyralate efficacy, and crop tolerance studies. Thus far, his studies have shown that tolpyralate alone provides excellent control of lambsquarters, velvetleaf, common ragweed, pigweed, green foxtail and barnyardgrass. Adding atrazine as a tank mix partner was found to improve control of wild mustard and ladysthumb. Further work is being done on dose response with tolpyralate in glyphosate-resistant weeds, including Canada fleabane and waterhemp. Ongoing work includes the effect of application timing on efficacy, and the effects of rate, hybrid and spray timing on crop tolerance. The goal of this research is to provide a broad evaluation of tolpyralate for Ontario growers.
Andrea Smith is a MSc candidate working with Peter Sikkema doing research on weed control in Balance GT soybean. These soybean varieties are resistant to glyphosate and the group 27 herbicide, isoxaflutole which is the active ingredient in Converge. The objective of one of her trials is to determine the efficacy of isoxaflutole (52.5, 79, 105 g a.i./ha) with and without the addition of Sencor (210, 316, 420 g a.i/ha) applied PRE across 5 different soil types. Results indicate the addition of Sencor to isoxaflutole is always beneficial and in some cases suggest synergistic interactions. The combination of isoxaflutole and Sencor at all rates provide greater than 90% control of common lamb’s-quarters, pigweed species, common ragweed, wild mustard, witchgrass, and crabgrass. However at the highest rate combination of isoxaflutole (105g a.i./ha ) and Sencor (420g a.i./ha ) control reached 100% for all of the mentioned species.
Horticulture Crops: The vegetable growers are hoping that the message gets out on the proper application of dicamba. The growers are okay for field labour but it is more of a challenge for food processors as fees have increased dramatically. A few acres of sugarbeets and carrots have been planted. The acreage of peas and sweet corn will likely be up this year while the tomato acreage will be the same or down slightly. Sugarbeet acreage is at about 96% of normal acreage. There is a proliferation of bioproducts. One researcher identified 235 products in US. They tested 8 of them with a 0 to 5% benefit. The Pest Management Regulatory Agency has delayed the decision on the fate of two fungicides which may be hopeful. Growers have been good stewards in past but need to do a better job on adhering to buffer strips.
Agricorp: To date damage has been reported on 1100 acres of winter wheat.
Dry Beans: Chris Gillard University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus will be putting out sulphur trials on dry beans this year. Rancona seed treatment was registered last year and will be on 95% of the seed from Idaho this spring. It increased emergence, vigour and yield dramatically in 2015 and 2016, and should complement Cruiser Maxx Bean, which is the current industry standard. ILeVO for soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in dry beans is making a big difference in kidney beans. It reduced the number of cysts by 50% in lab but not seen in the field. It is difficult to conduct these trials in the field. Kidney beans are like a susceptible soybean variety, while black beans are tolerant to SCN and similar to a resistant soybean variety. In a study last spring foliar fungicides were tank mixed with foliar fertilizer. There was no synergy, nor antagonism found for the control of anthracnose. The companies have no data on these tank mixes. A new race of anthracnose, Race 105, was found in Michigan in 2017. The same race was found several years in Manitoba. In Ontario the common race is 73 right now. Work on the tolerance of existing cultivars for this race has not been done yet. Research will begin in 2018 to determine if a a soybean variety with white mold tolerance was planted then less fungicide is required for white mould.
Cover crops: The Ontario developed cover crop decision tool: The Innovations in Cover Crops – Cover Crops Decision Tool is now found at https://bdc.ridgetownc.com/useservices/innovations-in-cover-crops/ The Midwest Cover Crop Council’s Cover Crops Field Guide is now available as an app.
GFO Article Ideas: John Kobler, soybean technician with the University of Guelph, Ridgetown is looking for topics ideas for a GFO article.
Canadian Agricultural Partnership (CAP) The cost share programs for CAP were announced at the beginning of the month. Funding is available in four areas: Environmental Stewardship, Lake Erie Agriculture Demonstrating Stewardship (LEADS), Economic Development, and Protection and Assurance. Funding is available for a wide range of projects including cover crops, erosion control structures, application of organic amendments, equipment modifications, crop nutrient planning and much more. Visit the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association website at https://www.ontariosoilcrop.org/ for more information.
NEW Best Management Practices for Soil Health Factsheet Series are available at ServiceOntario Publications – ontario.ca/publications and the OMAFRA Resource Centre, Ridgetown
NEW Soil Health Diagnostic Infosheet Series are available at ServiceOntario Publications – ontario.ca/publications and the OMAFRA Resource Centre, Ridgetown
Agronomy Guide for Field Crops, Publication 811 (2017) is available at ServiceOntario Publications – ontario.ca/publications, online at http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/p811toc.html and at the OMAFRA Resource Centre, Ridgetown
Field Crop Protection Guide, Publication 812 (2018-2019) is not available in a print version but a pdf version is available by contacting Gabriela.Deryck@ontario.ca or (519) 674-1690
Next Meeting: Ridgetown Agribusiness meetings are held in the Willson Hall Campus Centre (downstairs) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus. Meetings start at 7:15 am with breakfast and every two weeks on Tuesdays. One continuing education unit (CEU) is available at each meeting for Certified Crop Advisers. Next meeting is April 24, 2018.
National Soil Conservation Week April 15 to 21, 2018
Southwest Crop Diagnostic Days (University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus) July 4 or 5, 2018
FarmSmart Expo 2018 (University of Guelph, Elora Research Station) – July 12, 2018
Eastern Ontario Crop Diagnostic Day (U. of G., Winchester Research Farm) – July 19, 2018
Southwest Agricultural Conference (University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus) – January 3 & 4, 2019